Detailed plant monograph of Bidens pilosa and Bidens alba. Botanists go back and forth on if these two are different species, and their medicinal and edible uses are the same. They are both called Spanish Needles, and here in Hawaiʻi, as well as many locations around the globe, it is an invasive plant species. Take a deep dive in this publication, the culmination of years of research into the literature. Learn detailed botany, ways in which cultures around globe use the plant for medicine, nutritional information, and aromatherapy.